GMO MYTHS AND TRUTHS REPORT

Print

References to Section 5

1. National Farmers Union of Canada. GM crops: Not needed on the Island. Recommendations of the National Farmers Union to the Prince Edward Island legislature’s standing committee on agriculture, forestry, and the environment. Charlottetown, PEI, Canada. 14 September 2005.

2. Gurian-Sherman D. Failure to yield: Evaluating the performance of genetically engineered crops. Union of Concerned Scientists. 2009. http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/food_and_agriculture/failure-to-yield.pdf

3. Benbrook C. Evidence of the magnitude and consequences of the Roundup Ready soybean yield drag from university-based varietal trials in 1998. Sandpoint, Idaho. July 13 1999. http://www.mindfully.org/GE/RRS-Yield-Drag.htm

4. Elmore RW, Roeth FW, Nelson LA, et al. Glyphosate-resistant soyabean cultivar yields compared with sister lines. Agronomy Journal. 2001; 93: 408-412.

5. Ma BL, Subedi KD. Development, yield, grain moisture and nitrogen uptake of Bt corn hybrids and their conventional near-isolines. Field Crops Research. 2005; 93: 199-211.

6. Fernandez-Cornejo J, McBride WD. The adoption of bioengineered crops. Agricultural Economic Report No. 810. Washington, DC. US Department of Agriculture. 2002. http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aer810/aer810.pdf

7. Kaskey J. Monsanto facing “distrust” as it seeks to stop DuPont (update 3). Bloomberg. November 10 2009. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aii_24MDZ8SU

8. Gillam C. Virginia probing Monsanto soybean seed pricing. West Virginia investigating Monsanto for consumer fraud. Reuters. June 25 2010. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSN2515475920100625

9. Benbrook CM. Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the United States: The first thirteen years. The Organic Center. November 2009. http://www.organic-center.org/reportfiles/13Years20091126_FullReport.pdf

10. Christison B. Family farmers warn of dangers of genetically engineered crops. In Motion Magazine. 29 July 1998. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/genet1.html

11. Benbrook CM. Rust, resistance, run down soils, and rising costs – Problems facing soybean producers in Argentina. Technical Paper No 8. AgBioTech InfoNet. January 2005. http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/rust-resistence-run-down-soi.pdf

12. Pengue W. El glifosato y la dominación del ambiente. Biodiversidad July 2003; 37.

13. MECON (Ministerio de Economia Argentina). Mercado argentino de fitosanitarios – Año 2001. 2001. http://web.archive.org/web/20070419071421/http://www.sagpya.mecon.gov.ar/new/0-0/nuevositio/agricultura/insumos_maquinarias/fitosanitarios/index.php

14. CASAFE. Statistics. 2008. http://www.casafe.org/predan1/resumen.pdf

15. Nandula VK, Reddy KN, Duke SO, Poston DH. Glyphosate-resistant weeds: Current status and future outlook. Outlooks on Pest Management. August 2005; 16: 183–187.

16. Syngenta. Syngenta module helps manage glyphosate-resistant weeds. Delta Farm Press. May 30 2008. http://deltafarmpress.com/syngenta-module-helps-manage-glyphosate-resistant-weeds

17. Robinson R. Resistant ryegrass populations rise in Mississippi. Delta Farm Press 2008. http://deltafarmpress.com/resistant-ryegrass-populations-rise-mississippi

18. Johnson B, Davis V. Glyphosate resistant horseweed (marestail) found in 9 more Indiana counties. Pest & Crop2005;May 13(8). http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/pestcrop/2005/issue8/index.html

19. Herbicide Resistance Action Committee. Glycines (G/9) resistant weeds by species and country. 2012. http://www.weedscience.org/Summary/UspeciesMOA.asp?lstMOAID=12

20. Nice G, Johnson B, Bauman T. A little burndown madness. Pest & Crop. 7 March 2008. http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/pestcrop/2008/issue1/index.html

21. Nice G, Johnson B. Fall applied programs labeled in Indiana. Pest & Crop. 22 September 2006. http://extension.entm.purdue.edu/pestcrop/2006/issue23/table1.html

22. Randerson J. Genetically-modified superweeds ‘not uncommon’. New Scientist. 5 February 2002.

23. Royal Society of Canada. Elements of Precaution: Recommendations for the Regulation of Food Biotechnology in Canada. An Expert Panel Report on the Future of Food Biotechnology. 2001. http://www.rsc.ca//files/publications/expert_panels/foodbiotechnology/GMreportEN.pdf

24. Knispel AL, McLachlan SM, Van Acker RC, Friesen LF. Gene flow and multiple herbicide resistance in escaped canola populations. Weed Science. 2008; 56: 72–80.

25. Neuman W, Pollack, A. US farmers cope with Roundup-resistant weeds. New York Times. May 3 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/04/business/energy-environment/04weed.html?pagewanted=1&hp

26. Kilman S. Superweed outbreak triggers arms race. Wall Street Journal. June 4 2010. http://biolargo.blogspot.com/2010/06/round-up-weed-killer-and-acquired.html

27. Osunsami S. Killer pig weeds threaten crops in the South. 6 October 2009. http://abcnews.go.com/WN/pig-weed-threatens-agricultureindustryovertaking-fields-crops/story?id=8766404&page=1

28. Caulcutt C. ‘Superweed’ explosion threatens Monsanto heartlands. France 24. 19 April 2009. http://www.france24.com/en/20090418-superweed-explosion-threatens-monsanto-heartlands-genetically-modified-US-crops

29. Gustin G. Roundup’s potency slips, foils farmers. St. Louis Post- Dispatch. July 25 2010. http://www.soyatech.com/news_story.php?id=19495

30. Brasher P. Monsanto paying farmers to increase herbicide use. Des Moines Register. October 19 2010. http://bit.ly/az3fSo

31. Warwick SI, Legere A, Simard MJ, James T. Do escaped transgenes persist in nature? The case of an herbicide resistance transgene in a weedy Brassica rapa population. Mol Ecol. Mar 2008; 17(5): 1387-1395.

32. Hart M. Farmer to farmer: The truth about GM crops [film]. 2011. http://gmcropsfarmertofarmer.com/film.html

33. Mortensen DA, Egan JF, Maxwell BD, Ryan MR, Smith RG. Navigating a critical juncture for sustainable weed management. BioScience. Jan 2012; 62(1): 75-84.

34. Gillam C. Dow launches multi-herbicide tolerant GM soybean. Reuters. 22 August 2011. http://bit.ly/qBR9a5

35. Kimbrell A. “Agent Orange” corn: Biotech only winner in chemical arms race as herbicide resistant crops fail. Huffington Post. 22 February 2012. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/andrew-kimbrell/agent-orange-corn-biotech_b_1291295.html

36. Rahman A, James TK, Trolove MR. Chemical control options for the dicamba resistant biotype of fathen (Chenopodium album). New Zealand Plant Protection. 2008; 61: 287–291.

37. Herbicide Resistance Action Committee. Herbicide resistant weeds summary table. 2010. http://www.weedscience.org/summary/MOASummary.asp

38. Martin H. Herbicide resistant weeds. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. April 2001, revised 2009. http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/facts/01-023.htm

39. Downey RK. Gene flow and rape – the Canadian experience. In: Lutman PJW, ed. Gene Flow and Agriculture: Relevance for Transgenci Crops. Vol 72: British Crop Protection Council Symposium Proceedings; 1999:109–116.

40. Bindraban PS, Franke AC, Ferrar DO, et al. GM-related sustainability: Agro-ecological impacts, risks and opportunities of soy production in Argentina and Brazil. Wageningen, the Netherlands. Plant Research International. 2009. http://bit.ly/Ink59c

41. Brookes G, Barfoot P. Global impact of biotech crops: Socio-economic and environmental effects in the first ten years of commercial use. AgBioForum. 2006; 9(3): 139–151.

42. Jacquet F, Butault JP, Guichard L. An economic analysis of the possibility of reducing pesticides in French field crops. Ecological Economics. May 2011.

43. Rensburg JBJ. First report of field resistance by the stem borer, Busseola fusca (Fuller) to Bt-transgenic maize. S. Afr J Plant Soil. 2007; 24(3): 147-151.

44. Huang F, Leonard BR, Wu X. Resistance of sugarcane borer to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 2007; 124: 117-123.

45. Tabashnik BE, Gassmann AJ, Crowder DW, Carriere Y. Insect resistance to Bt crops: Evidence versus theory. Nat Biotechnol. February 2008; 26: 199–202.

46. Gassmann AJ, Petzold-Maxwell JL, Keweshan RS, Dunbar MW. Field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by Western corn rootworm. PLoS ONE. 2011; 6(7): e22629.

47. Associated Press. Monsanto shares slip on bug-resistant corn woes. 29 August 2011. http://onforb.es/pcJjQf

48. Gray M. Severe root damage to Bt corn confirmed in northwestern Illinois. Aces News. 24 August 2011. http://www.aces.uiuc.edu/news/stories/news5903.html

49. Chilcutt CF, Tabashnik BE. Contamination of refuges by Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes from transgenic maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. May 18 2004; 101(20): 7526-7529.

50. Dorhout DL, Rice ME. Intraguild competition and enhanced survival of western bean cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on transgenic Cry1Ab (MON810) Bacillus thuringiensis corn. Journal of Economic Entomology. 2010; 103: 54–62.

51. Pearson H. Transgenic cotton drives insect boom. Nature. 25 July 2006.

52. Wang S, Just DR, Pinstrup-Andersen P. Bt-cotton and secondary pests. Int. J. Biotechnology. 2008; 10(2/3): 113–121.

53. Goswami B. India: Bt cotton devastated by secondary pests. Grain 2007. http://www.grain.org/btcotton/?id=398

54. Ashk GKS. Bt cotton not pest resistant. The Times of India. 24 August 2007. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Chandigarh/Bt_cotton_not_pest_resistant/articleshow/2305806.cms

55. The Economic Times (India). Bug makes meal of Punjab cotton, whither Bt magic? September 2 2007. http://bit.ly/967MA8

56. Rohini RS, Mallapur CP, Udikeri SS. Incidence of mirid bug, Creontiades biseratense (Distant) on Bt cotton in Karnataka. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2009; 22: 680–681.

57. Zhao JH, Ho P, Azadi H. Benefits of Bt cotton counterbalanced by secondary pests? Perceptions of ecological change in China. Environ Monit Assess. Feb 2010; 173(1-4): 985-994.

58. Lu Y, Wu K, Jiang Y, et al. Mirid bug outbreaks in multiple crops correlated with wide-scale adoption of Bt cotton in China. Science. May 28 2010; 328(5982): 1151-1154.

59. GMO Compass. Maize. 2012. http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/gmo/db

60. Séralini GE, Mesnage R, Clair E, Gress S, de Vendômois JS, Cellier D. Genetically modified crops safety assessments: Present limits and possible improvements. Environmental Sciences Europe. 2011; 23(10).

61. Leslie TW, Biddinger DJ, Mullin CA, Fleischer SJ. Carabidae population dynamics and temporal partitioning: Response to coupled neonicotinoid-transgenic technologies in maize. Environ Entomol. Jun 2009; 38(3): 935-943.

62. Gurian-Sherman D. Genetically engineered crops in the real world – Bt corn, insecticide use, and honey bees. The Cornucopia Institute. 13 January 2012. http://www.cornucopia.org/2012/01/genetically-engineered-crops-in-the-real-world-bt-corn-insecticide-use-and-honey-bees

63. Gurian-Sherman D. Seed treatments. In: Robinson C, ed2012.

64. Kunkel BA, Held DW, Potter AD. Impact of Halofenozide, Imidacloprid, and Bendiocarb on beneficial invertebrates and predatory activity in turfgrass. Journal of Economic Entomology. 1999; 92(4): 922–930.

65. Rogers MA, Krischik VA, Martin LA. Effect of soil application of imidacloprid on survival of adult green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), used for biological control in greenhouse. Biological Control. 2007; 42(2): 172–177.

66. Tennekes HA. The significance of the Druckrey-Kupfmuller equation for risk assessment--the toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides to arthropods is reinforced by exposure time. Toxicology. Sep 30 2010; 276(1): 1-4.

67. Pettis JS, Vanengelsdorp D, Johnson J, Dively G. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema. Die Naturwissenschaften. Feb 2012; 99(2): 153-158.

68. Krupke CH, Hunt GJ, Eitzer BD, Andino G, Given K. Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields. PLoS ONE. 2012; 7(1): e29268.

69. Castaldini M, Turrini A, Sbrana C, et al. Impact of Bt corn on rhizospheric and soil eubacterial communities and on beneficial mycorrhizal symbiosis in experimental microcosms. Appl Environ Microbiol. Nov 2005; 71(11): 6719-6729.

70. Zwahlen C, Hilbeck A, Gugerli P, Nentwig W. Degradation of the Cry1Ab protein within transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn tissue in the field. Mol Ecol. Mar 2003; 12(3): 765-775.

71. Cheeke TE, Pace BA, Rosenstiel TN, Cruzan MB. The influence of fertilizer level and spore density on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of transgenic Bt 11 maize (Zea mays) in experimental microcosms. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. Feb 2011; 75(2): 304-312.

72. Cheeke TE, Rosenstiel TN, Cruzan MB. Evidence of reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal colonization in multiple lines of Bt maize. American Journal of Botany. 2012; 99(4): 700–707.

73. Marvier M, McCreedy C, Regetz J, Kareiva P. A meta-analysis of effects of Bt cotton and maize on nontarget invertebrates. Science. Jun 8 2007; 316(5830): 1475-1477.

74. Losey JE, Rayor LS, Carter ME. Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae. Nature. May 20 1999; 399(6733): 214.

75. Jesse LCH, Obrycki JJ. Field deposition of Bt transgenic corn pollen: Lethal effects on the monarch butterfly. J. Oecologia. 2000; 125: 241–248.

76. Lang A, Vojtech E. The effects of pollen consumption of transgenic Bt maize on the common swallowtail, Papilio machaon L. (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Basic and Applied Ecology. 2006; 7: 296–306.

77. Schmidt JE, Braun CU, Whitehouse LP, Hilbeck A. Effects of activated Bt transgene products (Cry1Ab, Cry3Bb) on immature stages of the ladybird Adalia bipunctata in laboratory ecotoxicity testing. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. Feb 2009; 56(2): 221-228.

78. Hilbeck A, McMillan JM, Meier M, Humbel A, Schlaepfer-Miller J, Trtikova M. A controversy re-visited: Is the coccinellid Adalia bipunctata adversely affected by Bt toxins? Environmental Sciences Europe. 15 February 2012; 24(10).

79. Hilbeck A, Moar WJ, Pusztai-Carey M, Filippini A, Bigler F. Prey-mediated effects of Cry1Ab toxin and protoxin and Cry2A protoxin on the predator Chrysoperla carnea. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. May 1999; 91(2): 305–316.

80. Lövei GL, Arpaia S. The impact of transgenic plants on natural enemies: A critical review of laboratory studies. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. January 2005; 114: 1–14.

81. Ramirez-Romero R, Desneux N, Decourtye A, Chaffiol A, Pham-Delègue MH. Does Cry1Ab protein affect learning performances of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae)? Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2008; 70: 327–333.

82. Tank JL, Rosi-Marshall EJ, Royer TV, et al. Occurrence of maize detritus and a transgenic insecticidal protein (Cry1Ab) within the stream network of an agricultural landscape. PNAS. 27 September 2010.

83. Rosi-Marshall EJ, Tank JL, Royer TV, et al. Toxins in transgenic crop byproducts may affect headwater stream ecosystems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Oct 9 2007; 104(41): 16204-16208.

84. Bohn T, Traavik T, Primicerio R. Demographic responses of Daphnia magna fed transgenic Bt-maize. Ecotoxicology. Feb 2010; 19(2): 419-430.

85. Viehweger G, Danneberg, H. Glyphosat und Amphibiensterben? Darstellung und Bewertung des Sachstandes. Sächsische Landesanstalt für Landwirtschaft. 2005. N/A

86. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Pesticide residues in food – 2005. Report of the Joint Meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and the Environment and the WHO Core Assessment Group on Pesticide Residues. Geneva, Switzerland. 20–29 September 2005; FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 183. http://bit.ly/oYcVwv

87. Schuette J. Environmental fate of glyphosate. Sacramento, CA. Institution. Date 1998. http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/empm/pubs/fatememo/glyphos.pdf

88. Kjær J, Olsen P, Barlebo HC, et al. Monitoring results 1999–2003: The Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme. 2004. http://pesticidvarsling.dk/monitor_uk/2003.html

89. Chang FC, Simcik MF, Capel PD. Occurrence and fate of the herbicide glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid in the atmosphere. Environ Toxicol Chem. Mar 2011; 30(3): 548–555.

90. Coupe RH, Kalkhoff SJ, Capel PD, Gregoire C. Fate and transport of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in surface waters of agricultural basins. Pest Manag Sci. 2011; 68(1): 16–30.

91. Springett JA, Gray RAJ. Effect of repeated low doses of biocides on the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in laboratory culture. Soil Biol Biochem. 1992; 24: 1739–1744.

92. Santillo DJ, Brown PW, Leslie DM. Response of songbirds to glyphosate-induced habitat changes on clearcuts. J Wildlife Management. 1989; 53: 64–71.

93. Relyea RA. The impact of insecticides and herbicides on the biodiversity and productivity of aquatic communities. Ecological Applications. 2005; 15(2): 618–627.

94. Relyea RA, Schoeppner NM, Hoverman JT. Pesticides and amphibians: the importance of community context. Ecological Applications. 2005; 15: 1125–1134.

95. Attorney General of the State of New York, Consumer Frauds and Protection Bureau, Environmental Protection Bureau. In the matter of Monsanto Company, respondent. Assurance of discontinuance pursuant to executive law § 63(15). New York, NY, Nov. False advertising by Monsanto regarding the safety of Roundup herbicide (glyphosate). 1996. http://www.mindfully.org/Pesticide/Monsanto-v-AGNYnov96.htm

96. Agence France Presse. Monsanto fined in France for ‘false’ herbicide ads. 26 January 2007. http://www.organicconsumers.org/articles/article_4114.cfm

97. Dodge J. Expert: GMOs to blame for problems in plants, animals. Boulder Weekly. 11 August 2011. http://www.boulderweekly.com/article-6211-expert-gmos-to-blame-for-problems-in-plants-animals.html

98. Kremer RJ, Means, N.E., Kim, S. Glyphosate affects soybean root exudation and rhizosphere microorganisms. Int J of Analytical Environmental Chemistry. 2005; 85(15): 1165–1174.

99. Sanogo S, Yang XB, Scherm H. Effects of herbicides on Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines and development of sudden death syndrome in glyphosate-tolerant soybean. Phytopathology. Jan 2000; 90(1): 57-66.

100. University of Missouri. MU researchers find fungi buildup in glyphosate-treated soybean field. 2000. http://www.biotech-info.net/fungi_buildup.html

101. Kremer RJ, Means NE. Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crop interactions with rhizosphere microorganisms. European Journal of Agronomy. 2009; 31: 153–161.

102. Fernandez MR, Zentner RP, Basnyat P, Gehl D, Selles F, Huber D. Glyphosate associations with cereal diseases caused by Fusarium spp. in the Canadian prairies. Eur J Agron. 2009; 31: 133–143.

103. Johal GS, Huber, D.M. Glyphosate effects on diseases of plants. Europ J Agronomy. 2009; 31: 144–152.

104. Food Standards Agency. About mycotoxins. Undated. http://www.food.gov.uk/safereating/chemsafe/mycotoxins/about

105. Alm H, Brussow KP, Torner H, et al. Influence of Fusarium-toxin contaminated feed on initial quality and meiotic competence of gilt oocytes. Reprod Toxicol. Jul 2006; 22(1): 44-50.

106. Diaz-Llano G, Smith TK. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins with and without a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent on reproductive performance and serum chemistry of pregnant gilts. J Anim Sci. Sep 2006; 84(9): 2361-2366.

107. Huber DM, Cheng, M.W., and Winsor, B.A. Association of severe Corynespora root rot of soybean with glyphosate-killed giant ragweed. Phytopathology. 2005; 95(S45).

108. Huber DM, and Haneklaus, S. Managing nutrition to control plant disease. Landbauforschung Volkenrode. 2007; 57: 313–322.

109. Monsanto. Get soybean and corn crops off to a good start in 2011 with Acceleron® seed treatment products. 7 February 2011. http://monsanto.mediaroom.com/give-crops-a-good-start-with-acceleron

110. Neumann G, Kohls S, Landsberg E, Stock-Oliveira Souza K, Yamada T, Romheld V. Relevance of glyphosate transfer to non-target plants via the rhizosphere. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection. 2006; 20: 963–969.

111. Zobiole LH, Oliveira RS, Visentainer JV, Kremer RJ, Bellaloui N, Yamada T. Glyphosate affects seed composition in glyphosate-resistant soybean. J Agric Food Chem. Apr 14 2010; 58(7): 4517-4522.

112. King CA, Purcell LC, Vories ED. Plant growth and nitrogenase activity of glyphosate-tolerant soybean in response to foliar glyphosate applications. Agronomy Journal. 2001; 93: 179–186.

113. Reddy KN, Zablotowicz RM. Glyphosate-resistant soybean response to various salts of glyphosate and glyphosate accumulation in soybean nodules. Weed Science2003;51:496–502. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1614/0043-1745(2003)051[0496:GSRTVS]2.0.CO;2

114. Dekalb. Increase soybean yield potential with inoculants, protect with seed treatments. 2010.

115. Iowa State University Soybean Extension and Research Program. Seed inoculation. 2007. http://extension.agron.iastate.edu/soybean/production_seedinoc.html

116. Kirby A. GM scientists “know too little” on wildlife. BBC News. 21 July 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3084157.stm

117. Hawes C, Haughton AJ, Osborne JL, et al. Responses of plants and invertebrate trophic groups to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. Nov 29 2003; 358(1439): 1899-1913.

118. Roy DB, Bohan DA, Haughton AJ, et al. Invertebrates and vegetation of field margins adjacent to crops subject to contrasting herbicide regimes in the Farm Scale Evaluations of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. Nov 29 2003; 358(1439): 1879-1898.

119. Brooks DR, Bohan DA, Champion GT, et al. Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. I. Soil-surface-active invertebrates. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. Nov 29 2003; 358(1439): 1847-1862.

120. BBC News. Q&A: GM farm-scale trials. 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3194574.stm

121. Amos J. GM study shows potential ‘harm’. BBC News. March 21 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4368495.stm

122. Heard MS, Hawes C, Champion GT, et al. Weeds in fields with contrasting conventional and genetically modified herbicide-tolerant crops. II. Effects on individual species. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. Nov 29 2003; 358(1439): 1833-1846.

123. European Parliament and Council. Directive 2009/128/EC of 21 October 2009 establishing a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides. Official Journal of the European Union 24.11.20092009:71–84.

124. Gómez-Barbero M, Rodríguez-Cerezo E. Economic impact of dominant GM crops worldwide: A review. European Commission Joint Research Centre: Institute for Prospective Technological Studies. December 2006. http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/eur22547en.pdf

125. Morse S, Bennett RM, Ismael Y. Genetically modified insect resistance in cotton: Some farm level economic impacts in India. Crop Protection. 2005; 24(2005): 433–440.

126. Haq Z. Ministry blames Bt cotton for farmer suicides. Hindustan Times. 26 March 2012. http://bit.ly/IrPRRZ

127. Benbrook CM. The magnitude and impacts of the biotech and organic seed price premium. The Organic Center. December 2009. http://www.organic-center.org/reportfiles/Seeds_Final_11-30-09.pdf

128. Roseboro K. Iowa organic farmer says non-GMO corn outperforms GMO. The Organic & Non-GMO Report. 1 April 2011. http://www.non-gmoreport.com/articles/april2011/organicnongmocornoutperformsgmo.php

129. PG Economics. Who we are. 2010. http://www.pgeconomics.co.uk/who-we-are.php Accessed 1 September, 2011

130. Brookes G, Barfoot, P., Barfoot P. Co-existence of GM and non GM arable crops: the non GM and organic context in the EU. PG Economics. 14 May 2004.

131. Howard P. Visualizing consolidation in the global seed industry: 1996–2008. Sustainability. 2009; 1: 1266-1287.

132. Neuman W. Rapid rise in seed prices draws US scrutiny. New York Times. March 11 2010. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/12/business/12seed.html?_r=1

133. Kirchgaessner S. DOJ urged to complete Monsanto case. Financial Times. August 9 2010. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/6327dfda-a3ef-11df-9e3a-00144feabdc0.html

134. Sharma D. A scientific fairytale. India Together. February 2003. http://www.indiatogether.org/2003/feb/dsh-scicoverup.htm

135. Roseboro K. Scientist: GM technology has exacerbated pesticide treadmill in India. The Organic & Non-GMO Report. 1 February 2012. http://www.non-gmoreport.com/articles/february2012/gmtechnologypesticideindia.php

136. Aaronson T. The suicide belt. Columbia City Paper. 10 November 2009. http://www.columbiacitypaper.com/2009/11/10/the-suicide-belt

137. Rylott P. Matter of Fact [television broadcast]. BBC2 Eastern Region. 12 October 2000.

138. D’Hertefeldt T, Jørgensen RB, Pettersson LB. Long-term persistence of GM oilseed rape in the seedbank. Biology Letters. June 23 2008; 4: 314–317.

139. Gilbert N. GM crop escapes into the American wild. Nature. August 6 2010. http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100806/full/news.2010.393.html

140. Black R. GM plants “established in the wild”. BBC News. August 6 2010. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-10859264

141. Bhattacharya S. German farmers to be liable for GM contamination New Scientist. November 26 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn6729-german-farmers-to-be-liable-for-gm-contamination.html

142. Reuters. Germany’s top court approves GMO planting laws. November 24 2010. http://www.futurespros.com/news/futures-news/germany%27s-top-court-approves-gmo-planting-laws-1000004734

143. Doward J. GM crops to be allowed into Britain under controversial EU plans. The Observer. February 6 2011. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/feb/06/genetically-modified-crops-uk

144. ENDS Europe. EU states back 0.1% GM contamination limit. February 22 2011. http://www.endseurope.com/25650/eu-states-back-01-gm-contamination-limit

145. Waltz E. Industry exhales as USDA okays glyphosate resistant alfalfa. Nature Biotechnology. March 2011; 29(3): 179–181.

146. Greenpeace. Children and infants in China at risk of eating food contaminated by illegal GE rice. 20 April 2011. http://www.greenpeace.org/eastasia/press/releases/food-agriculture/2011/ge-rice-baby-food

147. Greenpeace and GeneWatch UK. Germany finds unauthorised genetically modified (Bt63) rice noodles GM Contamination Register. 15 June 2011. http://www.gmcontaminationregister.org/index.php?content=re_detail&gw_id=353&reg=0&inc=0&con=0&cof=0&year=2011&handle2_page=

148. Greenpeace and GeneWatch UK. Sweden finds unauthorised genetically modified (Bt63) rice GM Contamination Register. 27 June 2011. http://www.gmcontaminationregister.org/index.php?content=re_detail&gw_id=365&reg=cou.6&inc=0&con=0&cof=0&year=2011&handle2_page=

149. New Zealand Food Safety Authority (NZFSA). Unauthorised GM rice product found and withdrawn. 30 July 2008. http://www.foodsafety.govt.nz/elibrary/industry/Unauthorised_Rice-Zealand_Food.htm

150. Dawson A. CDC Triffid flax scare threatens access to no. 1 EU market. Manitoba Cooperator. September 17 2009. http://www.gmfreeireland.org/news/2009/sep.php

151. Dawson A. Changes likely for flax industry. Manitoba Cooperator. September 24 2009. http://www.gmwatch.org/component/content/article/11541

152. Blue EN. Risky business: Economic and regulatory impacts from the unintended release of genetically engineered rice varieties into the rice merchandising system of the US. Greenpeace. 2007. http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/risky-business.pdf

153. Reuters. Mexico halts US rice over GMO certification. Reuters. March 16 2007. http://www.topix.com/forum/city/laredo-tx/TOSL1UNPIEIML1VMA

154. Harris A, Beasley D. Bayer agrees to pay $750 million to end lawsuits over gene-modified rice. Bloomberg. 2 July 2011. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-07-01/bayer-to-pay-750-million-to-end-lawsuits-over-genetically-modified-rice.html

155. Fox JL. Bayer’s GM rice defeat. Nature Biotechnology. 7 June 2011; 29(473).

156. Organic Agriculture Protection Fund Committee. Organic farmers seek Supreme Court hearing. Vol Press release. Saskatoon, Canada: Organic Agriculture Protection Fund Committee; 2007.

157. Binimelis R. Coexistence of plants and coexistence of farmers: Is an individual choice possible? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. 2008; 21: 437–457.

158. Macilwain C. US launches probe into sales of unapproved transgenic corn. Nature. 2005; 434(7032): 423.

159. United States Government Accountability Office (GAO). Genetically engineered crops. Report to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, US Senate. November 2008. http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-09-60

160. Arasu KT. US farmers reach $110 million StarLink settlement. Reuters. 7 February 2003.

161. Greenpeace and GeneWatch UK. GM contamination register. 2011. http://www.gmcontaminationregister.org/index.php?content=ho Accessed 30 August, 2011

162. Greenpeace and GeneWatch UK. GM contamination register report 2007. 2008.

163. Levett R. Choice: Less can be more. Food Ethics. Autumn 2008; 3(3).

164. GMO Compass. Gene transfer to microorganisms. 2006. http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/safety/environmental_safety/167.gene_transfer_microorganisms.html Accessed 18 April, 2012

165. Netherwood T, Martin-Orue SM, O’Donnell AG, et al. Assessing the survival of transgenic plant DNA in the human gastrointestinal tract. Nat Biotechnol. Feb 2004; 22(2): 204–209.

166. Pontiroli A, Simonet P, Frostegard A, Vogel TM, Monier JM. Fate of transgenic plant DNA in the environment. Environ Biosafety Res. Jan-Jun 2007; 6(1-2): 15-35.

167. Brigulla M, Wackernagel W. Molecular aspects of gene transfer and foreign DNA acquisition in prokaryotes with regard to safety issues. Applied microbiology and biotechnology. Apr 2010; 86(4): 1027-1041.

168. Lerat S, Gulden RH, Hart MM, et al. Quantification and persistence of recombinant DNA of Roundup Ready corn and soybean in rotation. J Agric Food Chem. Dec 12 2007; 55(25): 10226-10231.

169. Heinemann JA, Traavik T. Problems in monitoring horizontal gene transfer in field trials of transgenic plants. Nat Biotechnol. Sep 2004; 22(9): 1105-1109.

170. Schubbert R, Renz D, Schmitz B, Doerfler W. Foreign (M13) DNA ingested by mice reaches peripheral leukocytes, spleen, and liver via the intestinal wall mucosa and can be covalently linked to mouse DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Feb 4 1997; 94(3): 961-966.

171. Schubbert R, Hohlweg U, Renz D, Doerfler W. On the fate of orally ingested foreign DNA in mice: chromosomal association and placental transmission to the fetus. Mol Gen Genet. Oct 1998; 259(6): 569-576.

172. Mazza R, Soave M, Morlacchini M, Piva G, Marocco A. Assessing the transfer of genetically modified DNA from feed to animal tissues. Transgenic Res. Oct 2005; 14(5): 775–784.

173. Sharma R, Damgaard D, Alexander TW, et al. Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA in digesta and tissues of sheep and pigs fed Roundup Ready canola meal. J Agric Food Chem. 2006; 54(5): 1699–1709.

174. Chainark P, Satoh S, Hirono I, Aoki T, Endo M. Availability of genetically modified feed ingredient: investigations of ingested foreign DNA in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fisheries Science. 2008; 74: 380–390.

175. Ran T, Mei L, Lei W, Aihua L, Ru H, Jie S. Detection of transgenic DNA in tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus, GIFT strain) fed genetically modified soybeans (Roundup Ready). Aquaculture Research. 2009; 40: 1350–1357.

176. Tudisco R, Mastellone V, Cutrignelli MI, et al. Fate of transgenic DNA and evaluation of metabolic effects in goats fed genetically modified soybean and in their offsprings. Animal. 2010; 4: 1662–1671.

177. Knight CJ, Bailey AM, Foster GD. Investigating Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Verticillium albo-atrum on plant surfaces. PLoS ONE. 2010; 5(10): 13684.

178. Kunik T, Tzfira T, Kapulnik Y, Gafni Y, Dingwall C, Citovsky V. Genetic transformation of HeLa cells by Agrobacterium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Feb 13 2001; 98(4): 1871-1876.

179. Marshall T. Bacteria spread genes to fungi on plants. Planet Earth Online. October 27 2010. http://planetearth.nerc.ac.uk/news/story.aspx?id=853

180. Barrett C, Cobb E, McNicol R, Lyon G. A risk assessment study of plant genetic transformation using Agrobacterium and implications for analysis of transgenic plants. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. 1997; 47: 135–144.

181. Charity JA, Klimaszewska K. Persistence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in transformed conifers. Environ Biosafety Res. Jul-Sep 2005; 4(3): 167-177.

182. Gleba Y, Marillonnet S, Klimyuk V. Engineering viral expression vectors for plants: the ‘full virus’ and the ‘deconstructed virus’ strategies. Current opinion in plant biology. Apr 2004; 7(2): 182-188.

183. Gleba Y, Klimyuk V, Marillonnet S. Viral vectors for the expression of proteins in plants. Curr Opin Biotechnol. Apr 2007; 18(2): 134-141.

184. Hull R. Detection of risks associated with coat protein transgenics. In: Foster GD, Taylor SC, eds. Methods in Molecular Biology: Plant Virology Protocols: From Virus Isolation to Transgenic Resistance. Vol 81. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press Inc.; 1998:574–555.

185. Kleiner K. Fields of genes. New Scientist. 16 August 1997. http://www.gene.ch/gentech/1997/Jul-Aug/msg00573.html

186. Nowak R. Disaster in the making. New Scientist. 13 January 2001; 169(2273): 4–5.

187. Jackson RJ, Ramsay AJ, Christensen CD, Beaton S, Hall DF, Ramshaw IA. Expression of mouse interleukin-4 by a recombinant ectromelia virus suppresses cytolytic lymphocyte responses and overcomes genetic resistance to mousepox. J Virol. Feb 2001; 75(3): 1205-1210.

188. US Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Environmental assessment for Upjohn Company/Asgrow Seed Company petition for determination of non-regulated status for CZW-3 squash. June 1996.

189. Ministry of agriculture, rural development, fisheries and food, Mexico (SAGARPA),. Regulación de organismos genéticamente modificados de uso agrícola [Regulations for genetically modified organisms in agriculture]. 2004. http://bit.ly/Kur8mp

190. Gonsalves D. Transgenic papaya in Hawaii and beyond. AgBioForum. 2004; 7(1&2): 36–40.

191. Sasu MA, Ferrari MJ, Du D, Winsor JA, Stephenson AG. Indirect costs of a nontarget pathogen mitigate the direct benefits of a virus-resistant transgene in wild Cucurbita. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Nov 10 2009; 106(45): 19067-19071.

Add comment


Security code
Refresh