GMO MYTHS AND TRUTHS REPORT

Print

References to Section 3

1. Dona A, Arvanitoyannis IS. Health risks of genetically modified foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009; 49(2): 164–175.

2. Hines FA. Memorandum to Linda Kahl on the Flavr Savr tomato (Pathology Review PR–152; FDA Number FMF–000526): Pathology Branch’s evaluation of rats with stomach lesions from three four-week oral (gavage) toxicity studies (IRDC Study Nos. 677–002, 677–004, and 677–005) and an Expert Panel’s report. US Department of Health & Human Services. 16 June 1993. http://www.biointegrity.org/FDAdocs/17/view1.html

3. Pusztai A. Witness Brief – Flavr Savr tomato study in Final Report (IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL 60616 USA) cited by Dr Arpad Pusztai before the New Zealand Royal Commission on Genetic Modification: New Zealand Royal Commission on Genetic Modification; 2000.

4. Prescott VE, Campbell PM, Moore A, et al. Transgenic expression of bean alpha-amylase inhibitor in peas results in altered structure and immunogenicity. J Agric Food Chem. 16 Nov 2005; 53(23): 9023–9030.

5. Malatesta M, Biggiogera M, Manuali E, Rocchi MBL, Baldelli B, Gazzanelli G. Fine structural analyses of pancreatic acinar cell nuclei from mice fed on genetically modified soybean. European Journal of Histochemistry. Oct-Dec 2003; 47: 385–388.

6. Malatesta M, Caporaloni C, Gavaudan S, et al. Ultrastructural morphometrical and immunocytochemical analyses of hepatocyte nuclei from mice fed on genetically modified soybean. Cell Struct Funct. Aug 2002; 27(4): 173–180.

7. Vecchio L, Cisterna B, Malatesta M, Martin TE, Biggiogera M. Ultrastructural analysis of testes from mice fed on genetically modified soybean. Eur J Histochem. Oct-Dec 2004; 48(4): 448-454.

8. Malatesta M, et al. A long-term study on female mice fed on a genetically modified soybean: effects on liver ageing. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008; 130: 967–977.

9. Tudisco R, Lombardi P, Bovera F, et al. Genetically modified soya bean in rabbit feeding: Detection of DNA fragments and evaluation of metabolic effects by enzymatic analysis. Animal Science. 2006; 82: 193–199.

10. Brasil FB, Soares LL, Faria TS, Boaventura GT, Sampaio FJ, Ramos CF. The impact of dietary organic and transgenic soy on the reproductive system of female adult rat. Anat Rec (Hoboken). Apr 2009; 292(4): 587–594.

11. Séralini GE, Mesnage R, Clair E, Gress S, de Vendômois JS, Cellier D. Genetically modified crops safety assessments: Present limits and possible improvements. Environmental Sciences Europe. 2011; 23(10).

12. Séralini GE, Cellier D, Spiroux de Vendomois J. New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. May 2007; 52(4): 596–602.

13. Kilic A, Akay MT. A three generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: Biochemical and histopathological investigation. Food Chem Toxicol. Mar 2008; 46(3): 1164–1170.

14. de Vendomois JS, Roullier F, Cellier D, Séralini GE. A comparison of the effects of three GM corn varieties on mammalian health. Int J Biol Sci. 2009; 5(7): 706–726.

15. Finamore A, Roselli M, Britti S, et al. Intestinal and peripheral immune response to MON810 maize ingestion in weaning and old mice. J Agric Food Chem. Dec 10 2008; 56: 11533–11539.

16. Trabalza-Marinucci M, Brandi G, Rondini C, et al. A three-year longitudinal study on the effects of a diet containing genetically modified Bt176 maize on the health status and performance of sheep. Livestock Science. 2008; 113(2): 178–190.

17. Duggan PS, Chambers PA, Heritage J, Michael Forbes J. Fate of genetically modified maize DNA in the oral cavity and rumen of sheep. Br J Nutr. Feb 2003; 89(2): 159–166.

18. US Food and Drug Administration. Biotechnology consultation note to the file BNF No 00077. Office of Food Additive Safety, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. 4 September 2002. http://www.fda.gov/Food/Biotechnology/Submissions/ucm155759.htm

19. Pusztai A, Bardocz S. GMO in animal nutrition: Potential benefits and risks. In: Mosenthin R, Zentek J, Zebrowska T, eds. Biology of Nutrition in Growing Animals. Vol 4: Elsevier Limited; 2006:513–540.

20. Ewen SW, Pusztai A. Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine. Lancet. Oct 16 1999; 354(9187): 1353-1354.

21. Fares NH, El-Sayed AK. Fine structural changes in the ileum of mice fed on delta-endotoxin-treated potatoes and transgenic potatoes. Nat Toxins. 1998; 6(6): 219-233.

22. Poulsen M, Kroghsbo S, Schroder M, et al. A 90-day safety study in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA). Food Chem Toxicol. Mar 2007; 45(3): 350-363.

23. Schrøder M, Poulsen M, Wilcks A, et al. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats. Food Chem Toxicol. Mar 2007; 45(3): 339-349.

24. Kroghsbo S, Madsen C, Poulsen M, et al. Immunotoxicological studies of genetically modified rice expressing PHA-E lectin or Bt toxin in Wistar rats. Toxicology. Mar 12 2008; 245(1-2): 24-34.

25. Tyl RW, Crofton K, Moretto A, Moser V, Sheets LP, Sobotka TJ. Identification and interpretation of developmental neurotoxicity effects: a report from the ILSI Research Foundation/Risk Science Institute expert working group on neurodevelopmental endpoints. Neurotoxicol Teratol. Jul-Aug 2008; 30(4): 349-381.

26. Snell C, Aude B, Bergé J, et al. Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: A literature review. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2011.

27. ScienceDaily. Genetically modified food safe, animal study suggests. 24 January 2012. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/01/120124140103.htm

28. GMO Compass. MON863. 2006. http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/gmo/db/53.docu.html

29. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) GMO Panel. Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on a request from the Commission related to the safety of foods and food ingredients derived from insect-protected genetically modified maize MON 863 and MON 863 x MON 810, for which a request for placing on the market was submitted under Article 4 of the Novel Food Regulation (EC) No 258/97 by Monsanto. EFSA Journal. 2 April 2004; 2004(50): 1–25.

30. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) GMO panel. Opinion of the scientific panel on genetically modified organisms on a request from the Commission related to the notification (reference C/DE/02/9) for the placing on the market of insect-protected genetically modified maize MON 863 and MON 863 x MON 810, for import and processing, under Part C of Directive 2001/18/EC from Monsanto. EFSA Journal. 2 April 2004; 2004(49): 1-25.

31. Doull J, Gaylor D, Greim HA, Lovell DP, Lynch B, Munro IC. Report of an Expert Panel on the reanalysis by of a 90-day study conducted by Monsanto in support of the safety of a genetically modified corn variety (MON 863). Food Chem Toxicol. Nov 2007; 45(11): 2073-2085.

32. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). EFSA review of statistical analyses conducted for the assessment of the MON 863 90-day rat feeding study. June 2007.

33. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) GMO Panel. Statement of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms on the analysis of data from a 90-day rat feeding study with MON 863 maize. 25 June 2007.

34. Takeuchi T, Tsutsumi O. Serum bisphenol A concentrations showed gender differences, possibly linked to androgen levels. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Feb 15 2002; 291(1): 76-78.

35. Laviola G, Gioiosa L, Adriani W, Palanza P. D-amphetamine-related reinforcing effects are reduced in mice exposed prenatally to estrogenic endocrine disruptors. Brain research bulletin. Apr 15 2005; 65(3): 235-240.

36. Hilbeck A, Meier M, Römbke J, Jänsch S, Teichmann H, Tappeser B. Environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants - concepts and controversies. Environmental Sciences Europe. 2011; 23(13).

37. Breyer H. EFSA definition of “biological relevance” in connection with GMO tests: Written question by Hiltrud Breyer (Verts/ALE) to the Commission 22 December 2008. http://bit.ly/M6UFyn

38. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Scientific Opinion: Statistical significance and biological relevance. EFSA Journal. 2011; 9(9): 2372.

39. International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI). Nutritional and safety assessments of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through biotechnology, prepared by a Task Force of the ILSI International Food Biotechnology Committee. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2004; 3: 38–104.

40. International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI). Risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens task force. 31 August 2011.

41. European Commission. Commission implementing regulation (EU) No…. on applications for authorisation of genetically modified food and feed in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council and amending Regulations (EC) No 641/2004 and (EC) No 1981/2006. 2012.

42. Levidow L, Murphy J, Carr S. Recasting “substantial equivalence”: Transatlantic governance of GM food. Science, Technology, and Human Values. January 2007; 32(1): 26–64.

43. Séralini GE, de Vendomois JS, Cellier D, et al. How subchronic and chronic health effects can be neglected for GMOs, pesticides or chemicals. Int J Biol Sci. 2009; 5(5): 438-443.

44. European Food Safety Authority Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). Scientific Opinion on Guidance for risk assessment of food and feed from genetically modified plants. EFSA Journal. 2011; 9(5): 2150.

45. European Commission. A decade of EU-funded GMO research (2001–2010). 2010.

46. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA). EC report on “A Decade of EU-Funded GMO Research” describes “tailored” bioenergy crop research project. Crop Biotech Update2010. http://www.isaaa.org/kc/cropbiotechupdate/article/default.asp?ID=7082

47. Doward J. Scientist leading GM crop test defends links to US biotech giant Monsanto. The Guardian. 18 July 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/jul/18/gm-scientist-defends-monsanto-links

48. Jones JD. The cost of spurning GM crops is too high. The Guardian (UK). 21 July 2011. http://bit.ly/MpSIil

49. Federoff NV. Engineering food for all. New York Times. 18 August 2011. http://nyti.ms/K4Hufn

50. European Commission. Commission publishes compendium of results of EU-funded research on genetically modified crops 9 December 2010. http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/10/1688

51. Freeman RM, Taylor PR. Influence of histidine administration on zinc metabolism in the rat. Am J Clin Nutr. Apr 1977; 30(4): 523-527.

52. Wensink J, Van den Hamer CJ. Effect of excess dietary histidine on rate of turnover of 65Zn in brain of rat. Biol Trace Elem Res. Jul 1988; 16(2): 137-150.

53. Michaels D. Doubt is Their Product: How Industry’s Assault on Science Threatens Your Health: Oxford University Press; 2008.

54. Lexchin J, Bero LA, Djulbegovic B, Clark O. Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review. British Medical Journal. 2003; 326: 1167.

55. Baker CB, Johnsrud MT, Crismon ML, Rosenheck RA, Woods SW. Quantitative analysis of sponsorship bias in economic studies of antidepressants. British Journal of Psychiatry. 2003; 183: 498–506.

56. Huss A, Egger M, Hug K, Huweiler-Müntener K, Röösli M. Source of funding and results of studies of health effects of mobile phone use: Systematic review of experimental studies. Environmental Health Perspectives. January 2007; 115: 1–4.

57. Diels J, Cunha M, Manaia C, Sabugosa-Madeira B, Silva M. Association of financial or professional conflict of interest to research outcomes on health risks or nutritional assessment studies of genetically modified products. Food Policy. 2011; 36: 197–203.

58. Domingo JL, Bordonaba JG. A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants. Environ Int. Feb 4 2011; 37: 734–742.

59. Tribe D. 410+ published safety assessments on GM foods and feeds. GMO Pundit blog 2007. http://gmopundit.blogspot.com/2007/06/150-published-safety-assessments-on-gm.html

60. Freese W, Schubert D. Safety testing and regulation of genetically engineered foods. Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev. 2004: 299-324.

61. Netherwood T, Martin-Orue SM, O’Donnell AG, et al. Assessing the survival of transgenic plant DNA in the human gastrointestinal tract. Nat Biotechnol. Feb 2004; 22(2): 204–209.

62. Heritage J. The fate of transgenes in the human gut. Nat Biotechnol. Feb 2004; 22(2): 170-172.

63. Yum HY, Lee SY, Lee KE, Sohn MH, Kim KE. Genetically modified and wild soybeans: an immunologic comparison. Allergy Asthma Proc. May-Jun 2005; 26(3): 210-216.

64. Nordlee JA, Taylor SL, Townsend JA, Thomas LA, Bush RK. Identification of a Brazil-nut allergen in transgenic soybeans. N Engl J Med. Mar 14 1996; 334(11): 688-692.

65. Aris A, Leblanc S. Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in EasternTownships of Quebec, Canada. ReproductiveToxicology. 2011; 31(4).

66. Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, et al. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. Sep-Oct 1999; 5(5): 607-625.

67. Foegeding PM, Roberts T, Bennet J, et al. Foodborne pathogens: Risks and consequences. Ames, Iowa. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology. 1994.

68. Mozaffarian D, Katan MB, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354: 1601–1613.

69. Mayeno AN, Gleich GJ. Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome and tryptophan production: A cautionary tale. Trends Biotechnol. Sep 1994; 12(9): 346-352.

70. US Congress: House Committee on Government Operations: Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee. FDA’s regulation of the dietary supplement L-tryptophan: Hearing before the Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, first session, July 18, 1991. 1992.

71. Slutsker L, Hoesly FC, Miller L, Williams LP, Watson JC, Fleming DW. Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome associated with exposure to tryptophan from a single manufacturer. JAMA. Jul 11 1990; 264(2): 213-217.

72. Belongia EA, Hedberg CW, Gleich GJ, et al. An investigation of the cause of the eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome associated with tryptophan use. N Engl J Med. Aug 9 1990; 323(6): 357-365.

73. Garrett L. Genetic engineering flaw blamed for toxic deaths. Newsday. 14 August 1990. C-1.

74. Roberts L. L-tryptophan puzzle takes new twist Science. 31 August 1990; 249(4972): 988.

75. Jacobs P. Cornucopia of biotech food awaits labeling. Los Angeles Times. 31 January 2000. http://articles.latimes.com/2000/jan/31/news/mn-59543

76. Crist WE. James Maryanski, interviewed by William E. Crist. In: William E. Crist, Toxic L-tryptophan: Shedding light on a mysterious epidemic. 5 July 1996.

77. Crist WE. Morgan, D., Attorney. Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton, Washington, DC. Personal email correspondence to William E. Crist. In: William E. Crist, Toxic L-tryptophan: Shedding light on a mysterious epidemic. 19 April 2001.

78. Cimons M. FDA expands L-tryptophan recall, cites a major risk: Health. Los Angeles Times. 23 March 1990. http://lat.ms/NAzzw8

79. Kilbourne EM, Philen RM, Kamb ML, Falk H. Tryptophan produced by Showa Denko and epidemic eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. J Rheumatol Suppl. Oct 1996; 46: 81-88; discussion 89-91.

80. Antoniou M. Genetic pollution. Nutritional Therapy Today. 1996; 6(4): 8–11.

81. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Investigation of Human Health Effects Associated with Potential Exposure to Genetically Modified Corn. A Report to the US Food and Dug Administration. 11 June 2001. http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehhe/cry9creport/pdfs/cry9creport.pdf

82. FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel. A Set of Scientific Issues Being Considered by the Environmental Protection Agency Regarding Assessment of Additional Scientific Information Concerning StarLink™ Corn. SAP Report No. 2001-09. Arlington, Virginia. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 17-18 July 2001.

83. Mesnage R, Clair E, Gress S, Then C, Székács A, Séralini G-E. Cytotoxicity on human cells of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac Bt insecticidal toxins alone or with a glyphosate-based herbicide. Journal of Applied Toxicology. 15 Feb 2012.

84. Bernstein IL, Bernstein, J.A. , Miller, M., Tierzieva, S., Bernstein, D.I., Lummus, Z. Selgrade, M.K., Doerfler, D.L., and Seligy, V.L. Immune responses in farm workers after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis pesticides. Environmental Health Perspectives. July 1999; 107(7): 575–582.

85. Vázquez RI, Moreno-Fierros L, Neri-Bazan L, De La Riva GA, Lopez-Revilla R. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protoxin is a potent systemic and mucosal adjuvant. Scand J Immunol. Jun 1999; 49(6): 578-584.

86. Vázquez-Padrón RI, Moreno-Fierros L, Neri-Bazan L, de la Riva GA, Lopez-Revilla R. Intragastric and intraperitoneal administration of Cry1Ac protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis induces systemic and mucosal antibody responses in mice. Life Sci. 1999; 64(21): 1897-1912.

87. Vázquez-Padrón RI, Moreno-Fierros L, Neri-Bazan L, Martinez-Gil AF, de-la-Riva GA, Lopez-Revilla R. Characterization of the mucosal and systemic immune response induced by Cry1Ac protein from Bacillus thuringiensis HD 73 in mice. Braz J Med Biol Res. Feb 2000; 33(2): 147-155.

88. GMO Compass. Environmental safety: insects, spiders, and other animals. 2006. http://bit.ly/oYcVwv

89. Losey JE, Rayor LS, Carter ME. Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae. Nature. May 20 1999; 399(6733): 214.

90. Jesse LCH, Obrycki JJ. Field deposition of Bt transgenic corn pollen: Lethal effects on the monarch butterfly. J. Oecologia. 2000; 125: 241–248.

91. Lang A, Vojtech E. The effects of pollen consumption of transgenic Bt maize on the common swallowtail, Papilio machaon L. (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae). Basic and Applied Ecology. 2006; 7: 296–306.

92. Marvier M, McCreedy C, Regetz J, Kareiva P. A meta-analysis of effects of Bt cotton and maize on nontarget invertebrates. Science. Jun 8 2007; 316(5830): 1475-1477.

93. Lövei GL, Arpaia S. The impact of transgenic plants on natural enemies: A critical review of laboratory studies. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. January 2005; 114: 1–14.

94. Ramirez-Romero R, Desneux N, Decourtye A, Chaffiol A, Pham-Delègue MH. Does Cry1Ab protein affect learning performances of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae)? Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2008; 70: 327–333.

95. Rosi-Marshall EJ, Tank JL, Royer TV, et al. Toxins in transgenic crop byproducts may affect headwater stream ecosystems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Oct 9 2007; 104(41): 16204-16208.

96. Bohn T, Traavik T, Primicerio R. Demographic responses of Daphnia magna fed transgenic Bt-maize. Ecotoxicology. Feb 2010; 19(2): 419-430.

97. Castaldini M, Turrini A, Sbrana C, et al. Impact of Bt corn on rhizospheric and soil eubacterial communities and on beneficial mycorrhizal symbiosis in experimental microcosms. Appl Environ Microbiol. Nov 2005; 71(11): 6719-6729.

98. GMO Compass. Maize. 2012. http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/gmo/db

99. Paul V, Guertler P, Wiedemann S, Meyer HH. Degradation of Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified maize (MON810) in relation to total dietary feed proteins in dairy cow digestion. Transgenic Res. Aug 2010; 19(4): 683-689.

100. Guimaraes V, Drumare MF, Lereclus D, et al. In vitro digestion of Cry1Ab proteins and analysis of the impact on their immunoreactivity. J Agric Food Chem. Mar 10 2010; 58(5): 3222-3231.

101. American Academy of Environmental Medicine. Genetically modified foods. 2009. http://www.aaemonline.org/gmopost.html

102. GMO Compass. The allergy check. 2006. http://bit.ly/LWmnNR

103. Bernstein JA, Bernstein IL, Bucchini L, et al. Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods. Environ Health Perspect. Jun 2003; 111(8): 1114-1121.

104. GMO Compass. Do GMOs mean more allergies? 2011. http://bit.ly/MIxt8O

105. European Food Safety Authority Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). Guidance document for the risk assessment of genetically modified plants and derived food and feed. EFSA Journal. May 2006; 99: 1–100.

106. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization. Decision tree approach to the evaluation of the allergenicity of genetically modified foods. Evaluation of Allergenicity of Genetically Modified Foods: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Allergenicity of Foods Derived from Biotechnology, 22–25 January 2001. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO); 2001:5–15; 25–27.

107. Friends of the Earth. Could GM foods cause allergies? A critique of current allergenicity testing in the light of new research on transgenic peas. February 2006.

108. Penninks AH, Knippels LM. Determination of protein allergenicity: studies in rats. Toxicol Lett. 31 March 2001; 120(1-3): 171-180.

109. Pusztai A, Bardocz S, Ewen SWB. Genetically modified foods: Potential human health effects. In: D’Mello JPF, ed. Food Safety: Contaminants and Toxins. Wallingford, Oxon: CABI Publishing 2003:347–372.

110. Pusztai A. Genetically modified foods: Are they a risk to human/ animal health? Actionbioscience.org. June 2001.

111. Zolla L, Rinalducci S, Antonioli P, Righetti PG. Proteomics as a complementary tool for identifying unintended side effects occurring in transgenic maize seeds as a result of genetic modifications. J Proteome Res. May 2008; 7(5): 1850-1861.

112. Agodi A, Barchitta M, Grillo A, Sciacca S. Detection of genetically modified DNA sequences in milk from the Italian market. Int J Hyg Environ Health. Jan 2006; 209: 81–88.

113. Mazza R, Soave M, Morlacchini M, Piva G, Marocco A. Assessing the transfer of genetically modified DNA from feed to animal tissues. Transgenic Res. Oct 2005; 14(5): 775–784.

114. Sharma R, Damgaard D, Alexander TW, et al. Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA in digesta and tissues of sheep and pigs fed Roundup Ready canola meal. J Agric Food Chem. 2006; 54(5): 1699–1709.

115. Chainark P, Satoh S, Hirono I, Aoki T, Endo M. Availability of genetically modified feed ingredient: investigations of ingested foreign DNA in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fisheries Science. 2008; 74: 380–390.

116. Ran T, Mei L, Lei W, Aihua L, Ru H, Jie S. Detection of transgenic DNA in tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus, GIFT strain) fed genetically modified soybeans (Roundup Ready). Aquaculture Research. 2009; 40: 1350–1357.

117. Tudisco R, Mastellone V, Cutrignelli MI, et al. Fate of transgenic DNA and evaluation of metabolic effects in goats fed genetically modified soybean and in their offsprings. Animal. 2010; 4: 1662–1671.

118. Zhang L, Hou D, Chen X, et al. Exogenous plant MIR168a specifically targets mammalian LDLRAP1: Evidence of cross-kingdom regulation by microRNA. Cell Res. 20 Sep 2011.

119. Lappé M, Bailey B, Childress C, Setchell KDR. Alterations in clinically important phytoestrogens in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant soybean. Journal of Medicinal Food. 1999; 1: 241–245.

120. Shewmaker C, Sheehy JA, Daley M, Colburn S, Ke DY. Seed-specific overexpression of phytoene synthase: Increase in carotenoids and other metabolic effects. Plant J. 1999; 20(4): 401–412X.

121. Jiao Z, Si XX, Li GK, Zhang ZM, Xu XP. Unintended compositional changes in transgenic rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) studied by spectral and chromatographic analysis coupled with chemometrics methods. J Agric Food Chem. Feb 10 2010; 58(3): 1746-1754.

122. Ye X, Al-Babili S, Kloti A, et al. Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. Science. Jan 14 2000; 287(5451): 303-305.

123. Paine JA, Shipton CA, Chaggar S, et al. Improving the nutritional value of Golden Rice through increased pro-vitamin A content. Nat Biotechnol. Apr 2005; 23(4): 482-487.

124. Enserink M. Tough lessons from Golden Rice. Science. 2008; 230: 468–471.

125. Sharma A. Golden Rice still at development stage. The Financial Express (India). 22 November 2006. http://www.plantbiotechblog.com/2006/11/news-golden-rice-still-at-development-stage.html

126. Hooper Mea. Tufts University involvement in Golden Rice feeding trials. Letter from scientists and experts to Professor Robert Russell, Professor Emeritus, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University School of Medicine. 2009. http://www.i-sis.org.uk/SPUCTGM.php

127. Mayo-Wilson E, Imdad A, Herzer K, Yakoob MY, Bhutta ZA. Vitamin A supplements for preventing mortality, illness, and blindness in children aged under 5: systematic review and meta-analysis. British Medical Journal. 2011; 343: d5094.

128. BBC News. Vitamin A pills “could save thousands of children”. 27 August 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-14666287

129. World Health Organization (WHO). Micronutrient deficiencies: Vitamin A deficiency. 2011. http://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/vad/en/index.html Accessed 15 September, 2011

130. Pollan M. The way we live now: The great yellow hype. The New York Times Magazine. 4 March 2001. http://bit.ly/Lb7J9m

131. John Innes Centre. Purple tomatoes may keep cancer at bay. October 2008. http://bit.ly/NAwtZ6

132. Martin C. How my purple tomato could save your life. Mail Online. 8 November 2008. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1084073/How-purple-tomato-save-life.html

133. Butelli E, Titta L, Giorgio M, et al. Enrichment of tomato fruit with health-promoting anthocyanins by expression of select transcription factors. Nat Biotechnol. Nov 2008; 26(11): 1301-1308.

134. Mulyatno KC. Purple tomatoes: The richness of antioxidants against tumors Institute of Tropical Disease, Airlangga University. 2011. http://itd.unair.ac.id/index.php?Itemid=103&id=281&option=com_content&task=view

135. Philpott M. What the papers say. BBC News. 27 October 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/7692560.stm

136. Knowles M. Italian producers unveil “supertomato”. Fruitnet.com. 5 July 2010. http://www.fruitnet.com/content.aspx?ttid=14&cid=7359

137. CBS News. Purple tomatoes may fight cancer, other diseases. 3 December 2011. http://on.wfmy.com/L7aB5Z

138. BBC News. Vitamins “may shorten your life”. 16 April 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/7349980.stm

139. Foster P. Fortified rice to save millions of lives each year. The Telegraph. 14 May 2009. http://bit.ly/KIKT3g

Add comment


Security code
Refresh